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Full text of "Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Parks Monthly Report, March 1921"

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 

YELLOWSTONE PARK. WYO. 

THE SUPERINTENDENT 



T 

!H, 1921. 



V 





MONTHLY REPORT 
1921. 



TABLE OP COHTENT 



Page 

I . General Condition* / 

II * Personnel 1 

III. Work Completed 

IT. Work in Progress 

Y. Work Begun 

71. Plans or Proposed Work 

711. Policies 

7III. Cost of Operation 









IX. Other Hatters of Interest /. 

Wild Animals / >5 

Birds ' ' 

Fishes 

Seasonal Chanjes / £■ 

Arrests and Violations of Law 

Forest Fires /* 

Accidents and Casualties 

Medical Services 

Natural Phenomena 

Special Visitors 

Motion Pictures ' 

Miscellaneous 5 t 



X. Receipts and Remittances / ' 






DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 

YELLOWSTONE PARK. WYO. 

E OF THE SUPERINTENDENT 

April 9, 1921. 



Dear sir: 

The following Is report on conditions In Yellow- 
stone national Park, and on the operation of the parte, for 
the .month of March* 1921» 

GKRKIUU COHDITIOHSi 

eathera The weather conditions at Park Head- 
quarters (Maanoth Hot Springs), are Indicated by the 
follo;ving notes furnished by the Observer of the Local 
United states eather Bureau* The temperature record 
which shows an average of 3*5 warmer than normal, and 
precipitation record of 1*24 inches or .94 Inches less 
than normal, together Indicate an unusually mild "arch 
and Increase the prohahillties of an early spring and 
early opening of the park roads. 

Temperature 1 Monthly mean, 30*0°, is 3.5° 
above normal, /arm month, the temperature on several 
days being unseasonably high* Ho cold period of 
oonsequenoe occurred, the lowest being 3° on the 12th* 

Preclnltatlon t Total, 1,24 Inches, is 0*94 inch 
below normal* Li/ht rain or. snow was well distributed 
through the month, there being but eight days that wore 
free from precipitation. 

Snowfall i Total, 12.4 inches, or about one- 
third less than for the average March. There ware a 
number of light snows which soon melted, the greatest of 
which was 3.0 inches on the 19th. Except for butts of 
drifts, the ground was practically bare fro:: the 5th to 
the end of the month* 

,/lndi numerous high winds occurred, and the 
total movement of 8131 miles is, with one exception, the 
highest since the record began In 1904. On the 14th a 
velocity for a five-minute period was 54 miles 



- 1 - 



■ I V 



the south, .vlth an extreme velocity of 
78 Miles for two minutes, rhe aaximnm velocity 
•f 54 miles Is not only the highest of record 
for Mareh, but Is the highest for all months of 
the year, and the second occurrence of a wind of 
50 miles or more, the previous record being 52 
miles from the southwest on July 14, 1304, 

g W' V *" Percentage of possible 55, 
slightly below normal. 

The Monthly Meteorological Report for 
Harch, also furnished by the loeal eather Bureau, 
Is also enclosed, 

The following table refers to depth of 
snow In Inches on the ground at various points In 
the park at the close of Harch, 1921, and for 
comparison the same at the end of February, 1921, 
and "larch 31, 1920 1 

Station D eaths of ^now. In l«che,s. . 

1 9S I * 9 3 , 9 

Mar.Sl - jfab t .'38 AeUS 



Ma-moth Hot Springe, 5.4 

Berrls, 12 ™ 

ij o Riverside, 24 24 

Upper Basin, 
Gallatin, 
7 4 Bechler, 

h 4 Snake River, 

Thumb, 
v« lake, 

Upper Yellowstone, 
V -° Bast Entrance, 

■S <j> Canyon, 
2. </ lower Tails, 
^£ Buffalo Ranch, 
g_1 Soda Butte 

The comparison between the dates February 
28 and Harch 31, 1921, Indicate an almost total 
disappearance of snow from Marsooth, Soda Butte, and 
the Buffalo Ranch, thot*jh, of course, it Is still 
present in the form of driftsj also but little change 
at the higher points, but there was in reality a sub- 
stantial settling of the old snow at all points during 
the month, the difference being made up by recent 
storms, .vhlch are light and will disappear quickly. 

- 2 - 



26 


18 


72 


70 


53 


58 


46 


50 


36 


30 


36 


30 


24 


26 


24 


30 


8 


14 


Trace 


10 


Trace 


12 



19 







54 




/> 


50 




o 


70 






48 




o 


__ 






73 




T-Z 


64 




1 -g 


67 


' — 




70 




7-1 


29 




£> 


36 






32 







The vast difference In snow depths on March olat, 1920, 
and the same date in 1921, Indicate a much earlier 
opening -of the parte roads, with nuch less expense than 
last year. 7he usual short drifts, 20 to 30 feet deep, 
are found in Golden Gate and Sylvan Pass* 

gravel . 

2he road between Headquarters and Gardiner 
was open to motor travel during "larch. The road from 
Headquarters on to Cooke via Tower Falls Station, 
Buffalo Farm, and Soda Butte, was traveled during the 
month by teams with sleighs, and before the end of 
the month the mall contractor managed to get as far as 
the 12^nile post with his motor truck. 

The Oregon ::hort Line lollif Company sent In 
its snowplew and opened the railroad to the western 
entrance ( est Yellowstone) , arriving there on March 
12th, hut trains have not begun to run regularly into 
est Yellowstone. 

Travel to the park in .""arch was of no con- 
sequence. The Chief Raster* • Travel TieiiortB, on the 
regular blank fom, for March, 1921, and for Tlarch, 1920, 
for comparison, rare enclosed. 

wm fmft PwreLr Mftrkfi* 

This office, as well as the public utilities 
operatic; in the park, are beginning to hire a few men 
for the earliest spring work. It is almost oertaln 
that good men will be plentiful, and wages considerably 
less than last year. Thus far we are paying coanon 
laborers £.52 per day of eight hours, leas 1.00 a day 
for board, '.*ich is approximately 50£ per day below last 
year's scale, and others in this vicinity are paying 
about the seme wages in proportion to length of day re- 
quired, /ages for expert mechanics will be reduced to 
some extent, but probably in a smaller proportion* 

Few supplies were purchased during the month, 
but arrangement s were made for buying soon for necessary 
work during the remainder of the fiscal year. Prices 
quoted are much lower in all lines of subsistence 
supplies than last year* 



- 3 - 



II. 



Kotlas «»8 received durisg the month to tho 
effeot that, begin ire April 1, 1921, this office would 
come ,'ithin jurisdiction of a new Civil .'orvice district, 
the 13th, wltlr headquarters at Denver, Colorado, instead 
of under the 11th, at Seattle, as heretofore* 

Ob March 1st, there were 62 employees on duty 
under this office, which hat been Increased on liaroh 
31st to 64. 

Jhe following list showB the number of 
employees of various classes serving under appointment 
during the month, with a statement in general of the 
kind of work in which tliey were engaged: 



Ma Class 
2 Asst. Engineers 

4 Clerks 



2 Electricians 



Z Po 



1 Telegraph Operator 



1 Telephone Switch- 
board Operator 

1 Master Mechanic 



■3*- I NUMttHfr 

Offiee •ngineering, filing and 

cataloguing records, and making 
prensrations for the season's 

1 Disbursing Agent and .Purchasing 
Clerk; 1 on cost account work and 
property; 1 stenographer-typist 
on orders, proposals, and vouchers; 
1 stenographer-typist on steno- 
graphic .ork, files, and cutting 
and pasting clippings* 

Read meters, did necessary line 
work, and operated power plant 
regular shifts. Including Sundays. 

1 in cbaige of stables at head- 
quarters, and repairing tents and 
harness, 1 since >'fereh 2>tn repair- 
ing sprinkler wagons* 

Sent and received all Government 
Sern Union messages; operated 
one shift on telephone switchboard. 

Operated telephone switchboard, 
dally shifts, including Su days* 

In charge of shops, and of repairs 
to heavy road machinery* 



4 - 



:,o . Class 
1 Blacksmith 



1 Palate* 



1 Lineman 



7 Laborers 



1 Buffalo 'Cseper 

1 Asst. Buffalo KMpar 

1 Park Haturalist 

1 Plumber 

2 Automobile :*ecl anios 



1 atohaan 



1 Carpenter 

1 Chief Ranger 

1 Asst. Chief Banger 

22 Park Rangers 



General blacksmith work, in- 
cluding shoeing horses In c' 
ovorh&ullng and repairing tools 
and equipment* 

Renovated quarters at head- 
quarters, also painted sign* and 
equipment, ana prepared stencils 
and ■espies of paint for other 
national parks* 

in o barge of telephone and 
telegraph system. Bid emergency 
viork and lnatalled instruments. 



;, freighting, work In waro- 
l, and miscellaneous work at 
headquarters. 

orked in storehouse Issuing and 
receiving sullies, and sorting 

bye 

In charge of tame buffalo herd. 
Assisting Buffalo keeper* 
. oientlfio reoeareh work. 



In charge of 
repairs to si 



plunking -aid 
at headquarters. 



Ropalring motor truck* and touring 



hourly patrols during nJ 
at Headquartors, took oare of 
office, and kept furnace going 
during the night. 

Repaired buildings at Headquarters, 
and overhauled equipment in shop. 

In chaise of Ranger force. 

In charge of nerthern district - 
(Title changed to First Assistant 
Chief Ranger. Effective Har.16,1921) . 

In charge of ranger stations, doing 
patrol work, and constructing cabins. 
1 in charge of southern dlsoriot as 



- S - 



j;o. Class 



S reraporaiy Park Bangers 



1 ?lre-'ian 



Kind of v/orK oorformad. 

Actl ig Assistant Chief; 1 on 
soeoial duties aa voting Assistant 
Chief effective :^roh 9, 1921. 

Do>*g regular patrol work. 1 
assiBtlic In Chief Hanger's Offiee. 

In o) aige of furnaces at head- 



In addition to the regular employees listed above 
appointment, the following were employed tempo nrily 
by the dayi 



Labor, rs, 

2 Horse Teamsters, 



On March 1st - On larch 31st 
1 

i 



i 



IlUBTfif °* Abaenaa . 

Coring Mar oh, annual leaves of absence were granted 
as followst 



James Russell, 


Park Hanger, 


li 


te> e 


i - Mar.l-7(noon) 


Carrie 0. Haumessar, 


Stenog.-Typlst, 


1 


« 


- Mar. 1 


He? lie Koaoh, 


telephone Oporntor 


, 1 


rl 


- Mar. 1 


r*red J. Jovmsend, 


•c Ranger, | . . 




II 


-liar. l(noon)(.,.L.) 


■ m • Barney, 


Asst»Bnginoer , 


z\ 


« 


- Kar*l(noon)-4 


arren Jfutchlngs, 


a sst .Buffalo Iteeper, 3 


n 


- Mar. 1-11 


Sam I. oodring. 


Pork Hanger, 


4 


n 


- Har.1-4 


Thad C. Pound, 


n »» 


1 


« 


- Uar.5 


George "1cP irland. 


Laborer, (ii.L.) 


3 


n 


- ?.$ar.l-3 {b.L.) 


Clarence Sooyen, 


« 


4 




- Bar .10 (noon) -15 (noon) 


Ford Purdy, 


Hanger, 


Mi 


ft 


- Mar.l2-29(noon) 


Carrie 0* Hanmesser, 


Stcnog. -typist, 


1 


■ 


- mr.12 


;.H. Riley, 


^ut©. -Mechanic 


3 


ti 


- Hr.10-12 


Charlie R. .tiniett, 


Blacksmith, 


1 


tt 


- Mar .12-15 (noon) 


Chester a. Lindsley, 


A.SSt.Supt., 


« 


- Mar. 12 


Clifford Anderson, 


Park Hanger, 


r 


n 


- Mar. 16-17 (noon) 


Helen .. HoITutt, 


Stenog. -typist. 


i' 


it 


- Mar. 17-18 (noon) 


William iggins. 


Plumber, 


2 


H 


- Mar.15-16 


. . ley. 


Au to . -" 'echaai o , 


3 


ii 


- Mar.17-19 


Daniol ,/. Iripp, 


laborer, 


16 


ii 


- 'IXT.I.- V 


*Siclc. Leave to "be 


or. 






. . Juataan, 


Olerk, 




tl 


- Bar.24(noon) 


Roy fm Fraaler, 


Park Ranger, 


S 


ft 


- Mar. 2(5- 1 


n. J. O'loughlin, 


/atohraan, 


2 


ft 


- Mar .26-28 


John N. McDonald, 


Laborer, 


4 


rt 


- Mar .28- 1 



- 6 



?0>Tt-ner> AT* cm 

March 25, 19*3, from fturleqgfl viae* HipM . 1920. 

Maroh 18 - Farry fert 

Hanger, -t sr axmuw, tgr change of 

desJg!V*itic5: kern* Cfief Parte Ranger, 

at the sa ie sal 

Appoir. receive* th 

covering chazge by tlon of six "Firat-v rk 

Parsers" to "Park Kaneer", the title "?trst-Clr 
Banger" hflriNt been discontinued by the HkUMft] VMS 

Service. 

gepagatlgqg. 

Maroh l(aoon) - Fret 1 -T. Tcrwnsend, 7 J arJs: Hanger, at "1200 
per annum ( . . .)• resigned. 

III. '..'ORK ccskpl; 

(a) Construction of Physical ImaroveRientB. 

Ho construction work v/as completed flu oh. 

(b) Majatenaaffiq <ffift fir»»fr ftf ?tgstca?. & -parpveqents. 

During the month, a warm period of savei'al days 
duration caused a great deal of ssiov; to melt on the road 
between ^Aamofch and Gardiner. 1?he two engineers on uaty 
patrolled this seetion for several days, clearing debris 
from culverts and ditches, and diverting streams from the 
road bed to the slue ditebos. 

(e) WaqoUanoott* Sffamffqent; °ff;« 

The two engineer a devoted she greater share, of 
their time to office work, accomplishing the follov/irgt 

Completed one design in detail for a SO' spaa 
concrete 2-beam bridge. 

Made complete, one design in detail of a 12* spaa, 
concrete slab bridge. 

Completed the plana and estimates for inprove?nants 
to the sprinkling system In the pork. 

Made complete set of rules and regulations for 
the operation of the sprinkling system. 

Made up a set of rules relating to the hiring of 
employees ant team*| also a set of instructions for the 
benefit of prosneotive employees. 

- 7 - 



A new design dm mode for a wooden road- 
planer, v/hlci< is to be adopted as a standard for the 
parte If found to work successfully. She planer viae 
constructed In the shops and later tried out on the 
Gardiner road with satisfactory results. 

Host of the work performed during the month 
is reported under "IV. i ffiDS". 

(4) J?arTlce t q t he ^b»o. 

This feature was not of much Importance 
slnee there was no regular travel to the parte during 
the month. She enclosed Chief Ranger's Report, far 
aroh, with oopy of same for arch, 1920, for com- 
parison, shows but 10 and 11 persons, respectively, 
entering the park, all from the north - usually 
coming as far as Headquarters on business. 

Information beryl ce. 

146 Rational J irk publications (of which 
110 related to the Yello. stone national Park) were 
sent out free of ohaxge. 92 short letters were sent 
out In reply to simple Inquiries; 11 moro letters re- 
ulrlcg longer, more technical replies we M answered 
after spending the necessary time in searching out 
the Information desired. In addition, 146 letters 
applying for position* were answered, mostly by re- 
ferring the applicants to the Fotel Company, the Camps 
>any, or the Transportation Company, as seemed most 
suitable. 

17. CJRK XH HtO&HE • 

(a) Construction of Ptoslaal Improvements. 

Bur* was no oonstructi in progress 

during llarch, except the construction of log cabins 
by park rangers mentioned under the heading " ork 
Begun" following. 

(b) ■»«■*'»"- and Repair of Phvslaal Ismrovsments. 



The work done under this heading was accomplished 
by the regular winter employees and is covered In the 
following heading. 

(e) MlsofUaBftQWi Ipiproyement Wft* 

The Park Ranger force maintained such regular 
patrols as were necessary to proper!,/ protect the park 

- 8 - 



borders at this season of the year. Ranger Scoyen was 
designated Acting Assistant Chief Ranger effective 
Harsh 9th and stationed at Grand Canyon to record the 
readings of the gags whloh registers the flow of the 
Yellowstone Klver above the Upper Palls. His reports 
Indicate a steady fall In the flow. Rangers Henry 
Anderson and Sewing devoted most of their tl c to the 
work of Killing predatory animals, and vers fairly 
suooes ful In their efforts. The feeding of elk on 
C loi*;h Creek was continued up to about 'larch 10th f and 
the buffalo were fed at the Lamar River ranch until 
about the same time, when the snow had dlsa eared 
over sufficient territory so this was no longer 
necec ary. The hay on Slough Creek was practically 
catenated by that tine, but there will be approximately 
200 tone left at the Buffalo Ranch for next year. 

Daring the visit of Superintendent Albright 
to the park "arch 5th to 9th, on his way from ashlngton 
to California, the list of apniioants for ranger 
positions for the summer of 1921 was considered, and the 
selections made. Letters were written asking reappoint- 
ment of twelve men who held an ointments last year at 
;100 <i«r month, and for the appointment of twenty-three 
additional temporary rangers frera the new list, at *«0 
per month, with increased compensation in each case. 

Office hours were maintained from 8i3D AJU 
to 5:30 P. . dally, except on Sundays and holidays, and 
all members of the force were busy with usual routine 
work en vouchers, cost reports, correspondence, and 
filing, listing property, and making out msrao random re- 
ceipts, sad making general preparations for the coming 
busy sooner season. 

Park Natural 1st Skinnor continued his field 
work en birds, mammals, and plants, and espseially on 
aatslope during the early part of the month. Special 
study on museum construction was completed and a 
bibliography on the subject prepared for future use. 
Special study en forestry was continued and the study of 
Yellowstone Park plants was taken up again after having 
been dropped last October. Sotes eolleetod on field 
trins were written up and two manuscript articles pre- 
pared for publication. Other studies pursued by him, 
resulting in his notes on reason Changes, Information 
Service, and natural henoraona, as embodied in this re- 
port. 

The Headquarters corral and small foroe of 
laborers did the miscellaneous ork about Headquarters, 

- 9 - 



suoh as hauling away garbage, oaring for horses, 

hauling supplies from the railroad, and giving 

general assistance in the shopB and in connection /-" 

with the emre and ra&intenanee of the property and 

plant. ?he foreman in charge of the stables also 

made excellent progress in repairing harness and 

tents in the saddle shop. 

i'he plumber kept the water and sewer systems 

in repair and ^ade installations of new parts to them ; "~ 
where needed. 

?he painter and his assistant painted two 
touring oars and two traeks, and prepared sample 
boards and wet samples of paint showing the color 
adopted by the Rational Park Service fop painting 
equipment, whieh wvo sent to ten other national parks '*? 
for the guidance and information of the superintendents. 
The printed formula for nakia the color accompanied the 
samples, stencils of proper sise and style of letter 
for marking equipment, as adopted by the Servioe, were 
also out from stencil paper and forwarded to the same 
parks, 

The shop force -ride excellent progress in 
overhauling motor vehicles, and equipment, and putting 
them in repair for the coming vwrking season. In the 
garage the 5-ton I ,'hite r^uek and one of the &§<-ton Mack 
Trucks were overhauled, ae was also the 7-passenger 
White touring ear; and the work of overhauling the 7b- 
horse power caterpillar tractor was about completed, 
'The earpenter repaired equipment, made slight repairs 
to buildings at Headquarters where needed, and made a 
heavy road drag whieh was designed by the Engineers ae 
an experiment. The blacksmiths re aired equipment in- 
cluding the replacing of broken handles in axes, 
shovels, and other small tools, shod horses which were 
in use, etc. 

The electricians and linemen together kept 
the telephone lines and instruments in repair, repaired 
the power lines, and installed new lamps where needed, 
and operated the hydro-electric power plant about 20 
hours a day - 12 hours a day on Sundays and holidays 
when power was not needed at the shops. The plant 
generated a total of 11,580 C. . hours of current during 
the month. Of this, 860 kilowatt hours were sold to 
park utilities for lifting purposes and power in shops, 
1,009 kilowatt hours were consumed for street lighting, 
and the balance of 9,711 kilowatt hours were used for 



- 10 - 






lighting' and heating government buildings and 
famishing power for shops. The peak load daring 
the month was 46 kilowatts, on March 26th, at 
9iOO . . During the month wiring was renewed In 
the quarters occupied "by rark Natural 1st Skinner, 
the new wiring feeing heavy enough so the current 
can he used for providing heat in the building. 

A. total of 89 days' leave were taken 
during Mare! lyeos. Se many 

days of absence naturally interferes to a great / ^^ 

extent with the progress of regular work, but their 
services can be spared better now than later, when 
the heavy operations of the working season begin. 

ftrorowenonf to Park Utilities. 

-'he Yello /stone Park Camps Company con- 
tinued the employment of a few men at Manmoth f 
consisti;ie of two mechanics overhauling equipment, 
two earpenter8 making benches and tables for use 
at the permanent camps, and Wo men who began 
renovating and painting at Mamnoth Carap. They also 
had two men part of the month cutting cordwood at 

low Park, about eight miles south of JSomoth. 
■ or use at Smooth Camp* 

The Yellovstons «*aak Hotel Company em- 
ployed winter keepers for their hotels at Maraaoth, 
Sorrls Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, lake, and Canyon. 

The Yellowstone Park Transportation 
Company added materially to its force of mechanics 
early in iareh and began general overhauling of all 
of the big hite motor busaee which they have in use. 
The work of repainting those vehicles, which has been 
going on all winter, was continued, four painters 
being employed. 

The postoff ice store, under Mr. George 
hiitator, was kept open during the entire month. 

T. V70RK BiXTOI, 

(a) Construction of Physical Improvements. 

The Chief Banger and First Assistant Chief 
jJrisohrflan, assisted by from three to five rangers, as 
their services eo Id be spared from other work, began 



11 - 



the construction of a now substantial log cabin 
loonted on Hellroarlng Crook throe or four miles 
south of the northern line of the park, to take 
the f the old 3nowshoo cabin, uhlch is 

Inadequate* ?be winter's experience herding the 
elk back from the north line, and with a view to 
holding them at the new feeding grounds on Slough 
Creek, has shown the necessity of keeping two or 
three rangers at Hellroarlng the greater part of 
the fall aud winter. 2he MM cabin Is rrell and 
substantial.; built, with en Idea of furnishing 
comfortable quarters for two or throe men. It 1b 
built of native logs out on or near the site of 
the cabins Inside dtaenetone 15* x 32* { provided 
with two doors, four windows, a floor of boards, 
roof of boards covered with rabherold roofing and 
building paper. Divided Inside Into tvro rooms, 
one for a kitchen, about 12' x 15*, the living 
room about 20' x 15 ». Most of the lumber used 
was salvaged from old buildings town down In the 
park* 3"he total cost of the work outBide of the 
work which was oarformed by rangers will be In 
the aeighborhood of ^150. ?he «Mft v;as 80* com- 
pleted at the end of ?iaroh and will be done before 
the end of April. 

In connection ..ith the new cabin on 
Hellroarlng, In 'ilso c ; it and put in place, 

and most of the roof put on, to a new building for 
use as a stable for housing saddle horses. lb* 
dimensions of this building are about 12' x 28* , 
roof of combated Iron, v/hloh was salvaged from 
buildings torn down. Shis also should be completed 
Vefora the end of April. She cost is included in 
the vl50 mentioned in connection vith the cabin. 

Assistant Buffalo Kee:«r Hutch ings, 
assisted by Ranger C. Anderson, alDO begun the 
construction of a small log building for use as a 
storehouse at the Slough Creek 3h. No expense 

other than the labor o; la anticipated. 

"She work of glvin? the concrete reservoir, 
which is looated near Mamnoth Eot Springs as a part 
of our extensive water system, a thoro ing 

wac begun during arch. Uh5s work is being done under 
the direction of the stable foreman arid the plumber, 
and by regular employees. It was about 50" completed 
at the close of March* 



- 1:. - 



n. . 

Aa ln»;-H»otlon -mm ndt of the kl/rh steel 
bridge over the Gardiner River on the Tower Palls 
P.ond. The concrete ol « were found to la in sash 
condition that no repair* will be aceeasar 
spring. The steel eases of the Wats ea this 
bridge are ee eonstruoted as to fens pee tests, emit* 
hold from th~ee to rour gallons of water, and as no 
seep boles are provided for the water to aaoape. It 
Is retained In the pockets until evaporated. Because 
this water oaases considerable ln.Jn- i steel. 

It Is proposed to remove all water a* -on tha 

poeJBOts and fill than with aspaeltlo road ell. The 
steel bases restln? on the abutments were fonad to 
be eorored two to three feet deep with earth and 
loose rook, «ad the steel under this material to be 
heavily inerusted with rust. It Is proposed to -•- 
more the earth from around the steel, and after 
thorooghly removing all met to paint the steel 1th 
aoToral coats of brldgs paint. This work Is est! ated 
to oost about ^200.00 and to take eight days. 




th ceaeretc abutment of the bridge 
the Gardiner Liver near the state line was dls- 

to bo badly wndemlned. making ropalro 
oary bsfors next hi#h »vater. 



▲ now slide has started along the road In ths 
Gardiner Canyon, at a point at l" lilef fron aardlnor. 

As yet there has soon a* damage don* to the road, but as 
the hillside shows crocks for oomo dlstanea bask froa 
the road. It Is likely that earns trouble o a be expected 
at this point In the fut 

It 1* also proposed to constrict tow log 
diversion cribs to protect the i*ast ?orost " eserve Road 
erosion. 



?or ths month of ..?rll ths rasger force lo 
planning, to finish the cabin and stable an Ballrearlng 
Creak which was begun la It roh; finish ths log store- 
houso at 31ough Creek hay ranch, and also ts tear down 
an old barn leonted about a alio froa Oallctln 
aad acre and rebuild It at the pret \ on ths 

park lias, thay arc also planning to repair the fenoo 
around the Uamaoth buffalo sorrel In preparation for 
receiving the ohow herdf *t In a supply of wood for 
Naaueth pablls autaaobile camp for next sesaon, and 
possibly build a leg bridge across Telia. sto:« 
about three alloc below Tower Palls on the trail to 

- IS - 



Hellroaring Cabins shortening the trip from head- 
quarter b by several miles. This, of oourse, In 
addition to such regular patrolling as Is necessary 
to Insure proper proteotlon of the park, and the 
continued pursuit and destr.wtion of predatory 
animals, especially wolwoe, which are having their 
young at this time of the year* 

It Is proposed to continue the work In 
progress In jkJ shops at headquarters, 

getting ail tqelpmeat I Ir for the stssner's 

work, and making general plans for such work 
preparatory to asking for allotments fron the new 
appropriation* 

The fields at the Buffalo Ranoh, an Slough 
Creek, and at (Jardlner, may have to be Irrigated If 
the spring Is early enough so they get; dry, and the 
ditohes will h .vo to be cleared out and prepared for 
use, nd headgates repaired* 



The work of remodeling the stone Bachelor 
quarters to afford quarters for a imscwii and 
information office will be continued as time will 
permit, and quite eztensiTs alterations are to be 
made in a frame building located in the group of old 
engineer Buildings near this office and formerly 
used as a oeanissary storehouse, making it Into a 
house for laborers and other employees. 



The Hotel Company is plror-i-v to make 
extensive ohanges In the Old Co >tel for use as 

a men's dormitory at Memmotl . e is to be 

nearly **11 u:«n out and remodeled end renewed, 
plumbing renewed, and a general renovating take plaee. 

The Transportation Company will continue 
the employment of a full shop faroe, overhauling 
motor oars and painting them, and also plans to build 
an adequate house around the heating plant which was 
Installed last fall to warm the shops* 

Mr* C*A. Hamilton is planning to get crews 
to the Upper Basin and Lake to go en with his 
construction work at those points .lust as soon as 
practicable, but it is doubtful ii' they can set in 
during April* 

The Canoe Company planB to go ahead with the 
new work in connection ..1th the boys' camp at Tower 
Falls, before the opening of the season* 



- 14 - 



Til. VOLICIB81 

So now pollelea were adopted dnrlnc the month. 

Till. 

The rep Ing cost of waortc during 

will he transmitted at an early date. 

IX. OOKR MtXTSSB 07 XIRRR 

lilfl rfllmtlf- 

All weather and graslig oondltlone M 
aVle to the wild aninals, which have probably b 
ever before put in a better '.viator ao far as general 
condition and absence of any appreciable lota Is con- 
cerned. Qy the end of >d soisB 0/ the 
antelope were already working well up towarda the foot- 
hills of t'e hlg Ins. and all were getting ample 
fora e, Inelurflnf: considerable fresh gra.-6 that has 
already started. Kolther vera they badly harssed by 
predatory animala, and the doatl a from this source were 
quite amall. though there le always bound to he seas 
loss from this cause. 

buffalo,, t-flTfg h ardi Host of the lord haa been on 
"•ra l • "torrla froai 

the Buffalo RojMh since early In March. ?he calves are 
still held at the ranch and are being fed a little hay, 
but the latter east of -v,j-ll tlmy can t be 

1 lowed to run out with the balance of the herd. The 
mild winter bas been easy on the hay. and about half of 
the 400 tons put up last eunmer wi'l be carried over to 
be added to the amply '* or 1M:rt year. 

Buffalo, wile berdi The country frequented by the 
wild herd was not covered very thoroughly during .Arch, 
as It la not always advisable to molest then too often 
for they arc very timid and easily frightened out of the 

country. Ko rt lorlng 

the mom . 

Bear a 1 Bsraerocs signs of bears were reported, ant 
four blacK and one griaal., wave aeon during Kerch. 

Antoloooi 'he rangers patrolling from lanritl 
Station re .-art having aeen ZZ.5 uitelope in their district 
during 'arch. Further mention is nnde of than In remarks 
on Seaaonal Ohangea In another pars of this re . Be 
losses were reported during ? tar oh. 

- 15 - 



The deer wintered well ana \re atill In 
fine condition. The rangers estl late about 25 boring 
been killed during the winter by oarnivoroue animal a* 

£US> Most of the elk ranged on the high ridges 
and those noted were all In excellent condition, the 
losses were snail, estimated at about 40 head during 
the entire winter, of which most were calves killer" 
by coyotes. Orders received for shipping elk to 
Piatt National ^ark and to Dallas, ?exas, could not 
be filled as It was not practicable to catch them 
because they were ranging so high and too far from 
the shipping fwint. 

■ /■■■-■'-■■ m V(: ■*•■ > •'O' 6 iiot ■■* 1 ' 

evidence as they were feeding high and none were re- 
ported. 

Mooae » eighteen moose were seen in the Hell- 
roaring District, flsffjr also are In excellent con- 
dition. 

Uarnlvoroua Anlmale t Bangers Henry Anderson and 
Dewing devoted most of their time during tho month of 
Jtarch to hunting coyotes, and preparing to hunt mil 
in their dens during April when they have their young, 
several dens have been located and are being watched. 
Reports are not definite to date, but approximately 
100 coyotes have been killed this vrtnter up to elate. 

Sraalng ; Srasing conditions were unusually ood 
for this tine of the year, and all animals are getting 
plenty to eat. 

Ml ■:■. 

This subject is treated under the heading 
"Seasonal Changes". 

| I - i" . 

Fishing was fairly good In Oar diner River, and 
several rangers and others with special permits fished 
In Yellowstone River above Sardiner with fair success. 



The following notes on seasonal changes were 
furnished by Mr. a.P. Skinner, -ark Saturallsti 



- 16 - 



Botanicals Grass made good gwnrth throughout 

the month for eo early in the season* 
"Pussies" formed on the aspen on the 28th. 

Birdsi The remainder of the mallru-as, gold en-eye 

ducks, and Townoend solitaires that had 
wintered along the Gardiner ?iver left 
during the month; and the di , >ers became 
reduced to sunnier numbers. She magpies, 
green-winged teal, mallard, and 
leueoetictes wintering about 'toramoth left 
for earner quarters. 

Migratory birds arrived: bluebirds on 
the 2nd, robins on the 5th, Cas 1; purple 
finches on the 8th, pink-sided juncoc on the 
9th, red-winded blackbirds on the 10th, kill- 
deer plover on the 12 th, rioadowlarks and 
intermediate juncos on the 20th, crows on the 
22rd, and desert horned larks and pine siskins 
on the 28th. Birds began singing: bluebirds 
on the 3rd, red-winged blackbirds on the 10th, 
meadowlarks on the 22nd, Casein purple finches 
on the 23rd, and Townsend solitaires on the 24th. 

Interesting bird features of the month werei 
The earliest arrival ever recorded of the blue- 
bird, robin, Castin purple finch, and klUdeer 
plover | the large number of song sparrows seen, 
200,^ higher than any previous March figure, and 
bluebirds, 90 '". higher than any previous Kareh 
figure; and the remarkable taraenesc of a flock 
of orows now near JJaraaoth. 

Esranals: Mule deer continued to migrate upward towards 

the sunnier ratios. ?he horn butts began to 
ewell about the 20th, and at the end of the 
month the new horns were an inch long. 

2he elk about Jtwraoth fell off in numbers 
as the migration progro ^ed until at the end of 
the month tbero were only about one hundred head 
within a radius of four miles. The green grass 
enticed an average of 16 elk pew day to the 
plasa. Jhe eastijjg of horns continued through- 
out the month. On most of the bull elk the horn 
butts had begin to swell on the 23th. 

A few mountain sheep were seen at intervals 
along the walls of the Gardiner Canyon, but they 
did not remain as in winter. 

She antelope continued to move higher on 
the slopes of Mt» Bverts and Henulohor Mountain 
as the snow receded. All the males had full 



- 17 - 



grown horns by the 15th. Began to 
shed hair on the 24th. 
oodcliuofcs booarne oonnon on the 25th, 
and ground squirrels became oonnon on 
the 31st. 

Jack rabbits began to change 'lor 
on the 10th, and by the end of the month 
they had begun to turn grey all over. 

Insects i Sprlagtalls were swarming up through 

the snow on the 3rd. Snail moths we -e 
seen flying on the 25th and became eomuon 
before the end of the nonth. j*he first 
grasshopper was seen on the 31st. 



Based on the above data, the season Is new fire days 
earli r than the average year, Flora and faunal ehanges hare 
nothing to do with the melting of the snow; snow Is now going 
off about two weeks earlier than the average. 

Arrest! «nd yi 

He arrests nor violations were reported for vroh. 
2he United States Bwanlssleaer is still absent, in Denver, but 
with the understanding that he will return upon telegraohio 
request if hie servtoes are needed. 



A notice of some of the provisions of the new 
laws passed by the Itontana State Legislature during its reoent 
session, given through the press, indicate several changes 
that will work decidedly to the advanta e of the protootlon 
of game in and ar und the park. Among these are an open season 
for elk of but thirty days, and Uniting the number of animals 
that can be taken by one banter to one elk and one male deer 
per seasoni oreates a game commission to be appointed by the 
Governor, vnhleh has the power to control the wild life of the 
state n-nd of the fish and game funds, and authorises It to 
olose any of tie streams or jarta of tie state against fishing 
or hunting for any period of ti n. 

■■■eMtaWs 

Ho fires occur ed In the park during the month. 

ooldants and Casual tlos . 

Hone reported during the month. 
lokness . 

Banger Townsend did not recover to the extent that 
he could continue the severe v/ork sometimes required of a 

- 18 - 



ranger* aid he was sjbliged to resign* 

Medical service was furnished by Doctor 
. . Crawbuek, under his special arrangement with 
park employees. 

gatural Phenomena. 
(By Park naturalist Skinner) 

At Mammoth Rot Spring at Blue spring (the 
spring that furnishes water to Jupiter Terrace) showed 
possibly a little more activity. At any rate, the 
colored part of Jupiter Terrace is increasing in siae 
and variety of coloring. The spring to the south is 
maintalnir*; its wonderful activity and fine coloring. 
T&urble Terrace continues to decrease in activity* 
Angel Terrace again showed an improvement in activity 
and beauty of coloring. The hite elephant maintains 
its activity and, if anything, la becoming still rtore 
highly colored, Activity at Oran b the same 

us last month. Bath lake and. the Devil's ?Cltehen still 
continue normal. Harrow Gauge Terrace remains the saae 
as reported last month. Minerva Terrace after becoming 
quite "dead*', as reported last nontli, haa again opened 
and a gentle triekle of water generating a little color 
is escaping. Mound Terrace continues normal. The 
Palette Spring continues to dry up. Cleopatra Terrace 
continues its normal activity and the color is as 
delicate and beautiful as ever. Hymen Terrace Is 
drying up, a large part of the color and nearly all the 
water has disappeared, the wonderful alr;ous growth was 
turned to a marble whlten&ss and Is slowly disintegrating. 

Special Visitors. 

Superintendent Albright arrived in the park on 
March 6th, en route fro-n : ashln?ton t B.C., to the Pacific 
Coast, and spent the time from the 6th to the 9th In 
going over the plans for the sumner's work. 

Mr. Howard Hays, General Manager of the Yellow- 
atone Park Camns Company, was here "-arch 6th to ?th, on 
business connected with the affairs of his Company. 

Mr. H.I. Tuttle, of Fromberg, Montana, came to 
the park March 5th to 9th to confer in regard to the 
construction of log buildings at Upper Basin and Grand 



19 - 



Canyon for use as ranger stations and oonrounity 
centers. 

Mr, Prank S. Ellsworth, representing the 
to Risk Insurance Bureau of the Federal Government, 
in :fo;itana, was at hfemmoth Hot Fnrings JIarch 5th to 
7th on business connected «dth his Bureau, in the 
interest of some of our employees who were in the 
Army during the late sar. 

Motion Pictures . 

No motion picture operators cams to the park 
during the month. 

One permit was issued, on '.arch ?th, to 
Frederick A. 2odd, of 34 South -at Lake 

City, Utah, for taking notion pictures under usual 
conditions in Yellowstone Park, and. a copy sent for 
your files on the same date. 

Death <£ tf£. Fj, .£§£ Haynes . 

A telegram from r. . . ynes, park oon- 
eessioner, announced the death on MaMfe 10, 1921, at 
2 t 00 o'clock A.M., of his Father, tr. F.J. Haynes, at 
his home at 601 Dayton Avenue, at. Paul, ivsnesota. 

Mr. Baynes* death \t & caused by heart 
failure, from which he had seen a sufferer for several 
years. By your direction, all flags in the park have 
been displayed at half-cast sine* receipt of your 
telegram, and this will be continue! for a period of 
thirty days, March 12th to April 10th inclusive, in his 
honor. 

Mr. Haynes* connection with Yellowstone Park 
datos from 1661. In August, 1883, as photographer, he 
aocompanied the distinguished party touring the park 
which inoluded President Arthur, his Seeretj-ry of 
Senator Vest, Governor Crosby, of Montana, and other 
prominent men. Later, as official pr,rk photographer, 
on two occasions (1887 and 1394) he braved the severe 
cold and hardships of winter travel in the park, naking 
extensive trips on skis to secure winter pictures of 
game and natural phenomena. IJ is closer identification 
with the park began in Kareh 20, 1884, when he received 
a concession to conduct a photographic business in the 
park, whioh he held continuously for thirty-two years, 
until his health began to fail in 1916, when his 
business was transferred to his son, Mr, J.Ii. Baynes. 

- 20 - 



In 1896, foreseeing the future possibility 
of development of the western entrance to the peril 
as a tourist thoroughfare, he organized the Uonida- 
Tellov.-stone Btafw Company and secured a franchise 
for operating regular stages thro gh the park enter- 
ing from the west. For ten years tourists were 
taken from the railroad at Monida, Montana, and 
brought by this stage line i'o? 5o miles to the park. 
Hawing demonstrated the popularity of this entrance, 
he finally induced the ^nlon Pacific Railway Company 
to extend its branch line known as the Oregon ;;hort 
Line from shton, Idaho, bo the pr_rk line at est 
Yellowstone, '"ontana, in 1907, She name of this 
Company was in 1907 changed to the Yellowstone- 

estern Stage Company. 2his entrance his since be- 
corae even more popular than the Gardiner gateway — 
20,151 tourists havirg been transported by tads 
Company in a single year, 1915. His stage company 
was dissolved following the close of the season of 1916, 
when a new transportation company was for^ied to take 
care of rail travel from all entranc b and permitted to 
use automobiles in place of the old-fashioned stag* 
eoastios* 

hlle, due to his careful management and keen 
business acumen, all of "jr. Paynes* concessions in the 
park have proven satisfactory from a financial stand- 
point, he also had always a keen sense of obligation 
towards the park and its development as the property of 
the public. His dealing with the park officials, the 
public, his employees, and otters, ass always 
characterised by a spirit of fairnecs, which stands out 
forcibly in the mindB of those with whom he was 
associated. His splendid photographs of the park 
scenery have been widely distributed all over the world 
for many years, tat their influence in brisking the 
national Park into its pjsMBl prominence is beyond 
estimate. 

Mr. Kaynes loved the park devotedJy. He has 
spent forty consecutive —mere in it, end frem the ti e 
be left it for his home I . Ml at the close of last 

season, until the last day of his life, he was always 
making plans for his return next Meats** ith his death 
the park has lost one of its oldest, most unselfish, and 
sincere friends. 

Copy of my mesoorandura to the Chief Hanger 
ordering flags to be displayed at half-mast March 12th 
to April 10th inclusive is enclosed. 



- 21 - 



rtalnraenfts: piet-im s! ows were 

held for the benefit; of park employees. In the 
Post Sxp -jditoriuri, on raroli 5th ind 19th. 

Charon Services: Osnanalsa services were held 
in the Ohapel by Rev. Clarence . isoopal 

minister from iivir, ontana, on the -aorning 

ran 1st, following hie woning service of 
Fekf . Ivro services (morning and evening) 

were h&ld in the chapel by Rev. . - -itoJard, 
of Emigrant, Montana, on "larch 28th. 

The lost horse impounded at Lake Station 
last fall was advertised for sale, to be sold April 
4ti i » no owner hnving e? im. 

Fire in ..oss Yellov stjone.- She general store 
building in the village of .Vest Yellowstone, Montana, 
o-.med by the BlWUt ferc&ntile Company, oat^ht fire 
and was practically destroyed n the ovenlag of 

:0th* The fire c kerosene lamp 

being ovart*ned by i?r* Alex 'tevrart, the ,r anag r. 
Ifest of the contents of tie stoi-e ■sres-e lo^t. 

Copy of Circular Ho. 1, toted January 15, 
1921, which embodies the data contained, in Jup^ rintend- 
■Bt ..'oil's letter to jvm relative to reforestation 13 
enclosed, 2hie ciroulsii- i/as gotten out in the Chief 

* ice and distributed among Park Rangers for 

their guidance and information* 

x. m 

Report of moneys duo, colleoted, and trans- 
mitted, on blank forms 10-59 and 10-60, is enclosed* 
The total amount transmitted, JS.18, as shown by the 
report, is enclosed in the foil irmt 

Postal Tfoney Order, ro. 46175, drawn by the Postmaster 
at Yellow 3tone Park, yo*, on the Postmaster at 
Washington, D*C*, to your order, _1.13 

Cheek Ko. 744, drawn to your order on March 15, 1921, 
by the Yellowstone Park Camps Company, on the JTorth- 
estern national Bank, of Livingston, :?ontana, ^.05 



n - 



AoHnwlefigMorl- I rooeipt of these funds 

is ra- ■:os'j'.'4« 

Cordially yours. 



Chester ... i.liidslqr, 
",uoor Incident. 



3Jhe Director, 
ITatioocT rvlae, 

Depar*>«it of the Interior, 
T&shlwrton, u.C 

Baelo cures. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 
YELLOWSTONE PARK. WYO. 

OF THE SUPERINTENDENT 

April 1, 1921, 
REPORT ON INFORMATION SERVICE. 

To: Chester A. Lindsley, Acting Superintendent, 
From: I£. P. Skinner, Park Naturalist. 



146 National Park publications (of which 11C 
related to the Yellowstone National Park) were sent out 
free of charge. 92 short letters were sent out in 
reply to simple inquiries; 11 more letters requiring 
longer, more technical replies were answered after spend- 
ing the necessary time in searching out the information 
desired. In addition, 146 letters applying for pos- 
itions were answered, mostly by referring the applicants 
to the Hotel Company, the Camps Company, or the Trans- 
portation Company, e.s seemed most suitable. 









,iA CdS7C6"S<s/'a/7a , < ? & 6 



L, 1 *,** 77// 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 

YELLOWSTONE PARK, WYO. 



OF THE SUPERINTENDENT 



April 1, 1921. 
REPORT 03 WORK PERFORMED. 

To: Chester A. Lindsley, Acting Superintendent, 
From: II. P. Skinner, Park Naturalist. 



Park 1-Taturalict Skinner continued his field 
work on birds, mammal c, and plants, and especially^ km during 
the early part of the month. Special study on museum 
construction was completed and a bibliography on the 
subject prepared for future use. Jpecial study on 
forestry was continued and the study of Yellowstone Park 
plants was taken up again after having been dropped 
last October. JJotes collected on field trips were 
written up and two manuscript articles prepared for 
publication. Other studies pursued by him, xxxxrkx 
resulting in his notes o'n Season* Changes, Information 
Service, and Natural Phenomena, as embodied in this report. 



t ^; r ^- v^,. f fA. 







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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 
YELLOWSTONE PARK, WYO. 



F THE SUPERINTENDENT 



April 1, 1921. 
REPORT Oil NATURAL PHENOMENA. 

To: Chester A. Lindsley, Acting Superintendent. 
From: M. P. Skinner, Perk Naturalist. 



At Mammoth Hot Springs: Blue Spring (the 
spring that furnishes water to Jupiter Terrace) showed 
possibly a little more activity, at any rate the colored 
part of Jupiter Terrace in increasing in size and variety 
of coloring. The spring to the south is maintaining 
its wonderful activity and fine coloring. Marble 
Terrace continues to decrease in activity. Angel 
Terrace again showed an improvement in activity and 
beauty of coloring. The White Elephant maintains its 
activity and if anything is becoming still more highly 
colored. Activity at Orange Spring was the same as 
last month. Bath Lake and the Devil's Kitchen still 
continue normal. Narrow Guage Terrace remains the 
same as reported last month. Minerva Terrace after 
becoming quite "dead" as reported last month has again 
opened and a gentle trickle of ^vater generating a little 
color is escaping. Mound Terrace continues normal. 
The Pa.lette Spring continues to dry up. Cleopatra 
Terrace continues its normal activity and the color is 
as delicate and beautiful as ever. Hymen Terrace is 
drying up, a large part of the color and nearly all 
the water has disappeared, the wonderful algous growth 
was turned to a marble whiteness and^slowly disintegrating. 



■ THE SUPERINTENDENT 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 
YELLOWSTONE PARK, WYO. 

April 1, 1921. 
REPORT Oil SEASONAL CHANGES. 

To: Chester A. Lindsley, Acting Superintendent. 
From; M. P. Skinner, Park Naturalist. 



Botanical: Grass made good growth throughout the month 
for so early in the season. "Pussies" formed 
on the aspen on the 28th. 

Birds: The remainder of the mallards, golden-eye ducks, 
and Townsend solitaires that had wintered along 
the Gardiner River, left during the month; and 
the dippers became reduced to summer numbers. 
The magpies, green-winged teal, mallard, and 
leucostictes wintering about Mammoth left for 
summer quarters. 

Migratory birds arrived: bluebirds on the 
2d, robins on the 5th, Cassin purple finches 
on the 8th, pink-sided juncos on the 9th, red- 
winged blackbirds on the 10th, killdeer plover 
on the 12th, meadowlarks and intermediate 
juncos on the 20th, crows on the 23rd, and 
desert horned larks and pine siskins on the 
28th. Birds began singing: bluebirds on the 
3rd, red-winged blackbirds on the 10th, mead- 
owlarks on the 22d, Cassin purple finches on 
the 23rd, and Townsend solitaires on the 24th. 

Interesting bird features of the month were: 
the earliest arrival ever recorded of the 
bluebird, robin, Cassin purple finch, and 
killdeer plover; the large number of song 
sparrows seen, 200 % higher than any previous 
March figure, and bluebirds, 90;« higher than 
any previous March figure; and the remarkable 
tameness of a flock of crows now near Mammoth. 

Mammals: M u le deer continued to migrate upward towards 
the summer ranges. The horn butts began to 
swell about the 20th and at the end of the 
month the new horns were an inch long. 



Report 4/1/1921 Page 2. 

The elk about Mainmoth fell off in numbers 
as the migration progressed until at the end 
of the month there were only about one hundred 
head within a radius of four miles. The green 
grass enticed an average of 16 elk per day to 
the plaza. The casting of horns continued 
throughout the month. On most of the bull elk 
the horn butts had begun to swell on the 28th. 

A few mountain sheep were seen at intervals 
along the walls of the Gardiner Canyon but they 
did not remain ne in winter. 

The antelope continued to move higher on 
the slopes of lit. Everts and Sepulcher uiountain 
as the snow receded. All the males had full 
grown horns by the 15th. 3egan to shed hair 
on the 24th. 

Woodchucks became common on the 25th, and 
ground squirrels became common on the 31st. 

Jack rabbits began to change color on the 
10th and by the end of the month they had begun 
to turn gray all over. 

Insects: Springtciils were swarming up through the snow 
on the 3rd. Small moths were seen flying 
on the 25th and became common before the end 
of the month. The first grasshopper was seen 
on the 31 st. 



Based on the above data, the season is now 
five days earlier than the average year. Flora and 
faunal changes have nothing to do with the melting of 
the snow; snow is now going off about two weeks earlier 
than the average. 



: 



Death of r . Frank Jay Hy.-nes: A telegram from Mr. J. E. Haynes, 
park concessioner, announced the death on "arch 10, 1921, at lli ' OC o'clock 
A.M. of his Father, Mr. P. J. Haynes, at hia home at 601 Dayton -Wenue, 
^t.Paul, Minnesota. [Jr. Haynes 1 death was caused by heart failure, from 
which he has been a sufferer for several years. By your direction, all 
flags in the park have been displayed at half-staff since receipt of your 
telegram, and this will be continued for a period of thirty days, March 12 

to April 12 inclusive, in his honor. 

- 
r.Maynes' connection with Yellowstone Bark dates from h i n trip in 

August, 1833, as photographer -w4*i«- the distinguished party which included 

President Arthur, his Secretary of War, enator Vest, Governor Crosby of 

Montana, and other proninent men. Later as official park photographer, on 

two occasions (1887 and 1894) he braved the severe cold and hardships of 

winter travel in the park, making extensive trips on skis to secue winter 

pictures of game and natural phenomena. Hia closer identification with 

7\\«rck 10, If S</ 
the park began in , when he received a concession to conduct a photo- 

graph business in the park, which he helcLuntil hi3 health began to fail in 

tflk 

1017r "hen his business was transferred to his son, r. . . nos. 

In 1898, foreseeing the future possibility of development of the western 

entrance to the park as a tourist thoroughfare, he organized the Monida- 

Yellowstone Stage Company and secured a franchise for operating regular 

f | y ^ 
stages through the park entering from the west. , Tourists were a t first 

taken from the railroad at Monida, Montana, and brought by stage 55 rales 

bo the park.kHHudacity Having demonstrated the popularity of this entrance, 

he finally induced the Union Pacific Railway Company to extend its branch 

line known as the Oregon Short Line From Ashton, Idaho to the park line at 

"'est Yellowstone, Montana,, and this entrance has since become utjuully 

A 1 



~? popular w*Wi the Gardiner gateway- xflaazxthexkHxl^xxxxaf His stage company 
/ was dissolved following the close of the season of 1916, when a now trans- 

-1- 



portation conpany w 

entrances ind per ' he old- 

fashioned sta o coicl.oi. 

La Jus to his careful esanagetjent an 

^cessions In the INirk H*t« 
anclal sta- . a alao -«n sens* of obligation 

towards tba park ^lopaent as th« 

: with pa U'.s, the , xaployees, and 

was always chara 

ninds of those with whos> ha was as phe 

park sc =>r tamy 

years, ■ 

' laate. 

■s lowed ' : '« 

amners In It. and fro« the tin - his hor 

- . 
1 for his r rt mc- . *• 

lost on* of . selfish. »ia« 



April 

1 

1921 



Superintendent Horace M, Albright, 
Yellowstone National Parte, 7,yo. 



Dear Mr, Albright i 

I respeot fully submit to yen ay 
thly report, for tha month af Uaroh 1921, 
af the aotiritiae of the park ranger foroo. 



As In the paat, the month of Uaroh 
has bean similar to other years In its 
dl ran Ion from the hard grind of patrols 
and the worry of the game conditions. 

It is ray pleasure* to report that after 
almost two wanks of Tory through inrestl- 
gatlng, I an oonrinoed that at no time 
in the history of the Yellowstone rational 
Park have predatory animals killed suoh a 
small number out of our big game herds,, 
or from deaths due to natural or other 
causes* Thio report is baaad upon ootual 
oount from a surrey of the entire north- 
ern district conducted under my orders 
following our discussion of the matter, 

Vbo feeding of the buffalo and elk 
on the two respeotlYe ranches was discon- 
tinued by the tenth of the month at each 
ranch, due to the fact that these animal u 
left the feed grounds as the snov; left 
the mountains. 



L 



2/ Maroh Monthly Report. 



Favorable weather conditions allowed 
us to start work on the new oabln at Hell- 
rearing, which, I expect will he need a* a 
permanent winter station. 3be work is under 
the direction of Ass't. Chief Ranger Tris- 
ohman and myself, assisted by Park Rangers, 
Bupu^is, La -sen, Lawson, Bishop and Andersoa 



V 



Mr. Bd Burket^s, of Gardiner, Mont., was 
taken onto our payroll as a day laborer, on 
trial, at $£«0£ per day. Hia services 
hare been Tery satisfactory and he shows 

that his qualifications for a permanent pos- U-" 

ltlon are far aboTe the average to be ob- 
tained. He is highly recommended by Zris- 
chman and IWt&. 

Oia work is proceeding rapidly. IhejJaJT 
oabln is practically completed. It is seven 
logs high, thirty-two feet long by tit teen 
and one half feet wide. It will have two 
rooms, four windows and two doors. 

As soon as the cabin Is finished, a 
small rough barn will be erected, the old 
oabln to be used as a forage store-house* 
Die labor involved in its ereotlon will 
be charged to protection, while the actual 
cost taken from the a propriation will 
not exceed £150; accounted for by rations 
and misoellaneous supplies. 

With the open spring, I believe we 
will bo able to do a large amount of this 
work. Plans are being made to repair the 
Buffalo Cor al fenoe, out the fire wood 
for the Mammoth Auto Camp, to re-build 
at Crevice and if possible to build a log 
bridge aoross the Yellowstone River below 
the mouth of Hellroarlng Creek, which will 
shorten the distance to (tower Falls by 
almost seven miles. Very little expense is 
involved in the above mentioned work. 

2he protection of the park's inter- 
est in the northern district istoot neg- *-- 
looted in this work. All Important sections 
are regularly patroled. 

Hutohins and C. Anderson have started 
work on a store-house and new cabin at the 

Slough Creek Horse ranch. Share Is no add- >/ 

itional expense involved in this work. 



3/ March Monthly Report. 

Park Ranger E. T. Sooyon was notified 
according to your Instructions of March 9th ( 
designating him as Aot'g. Ass't. Ohief Ranger, 
with unaa signed district. He was transfered 
to the Oanyon station, where he is taking 
readings of the flow o< the Yellowstone River 
at that point. Be reports a staedy fall in 
the flow* 

Die resignation of Park Ranger Fred J. 
Ibwnsend was accepted March 1st. His reason 
glTen with the resignation was, 'poor physi- 
cal condition.' 

She saddle horse impounded at the Lake 
Station early last fall beoame theeproperty 
of th United States goTernment March 24th, 
and will he sold April 4th, according to 
the instructions and regulations prescribed 
by the Secretary of the Interior* I would 
estimate the value of the animal at £30. It 
will be sold to the highest bidder, sealed 
bids to be aooe^ted. 

Reports to the e 'fact that predatory 
animals had Increased In the park, hare so 
far* proven to be unfounded. Park Rangers 
Henry Andersen and Court Sewing spent the 
entire month after these animals but have 
made the smallest catch on record in this 
office. Fifty coyote hides and one wolf 
hide was turned In to be sold by Ranger 
Henry Anderaon, also nine from Ranger James 
Duppass and one from Dewing. Anderson has 
killed about thirty more coyotes than hare 
been turned in. 

Under special permits, Messers Bob 
Summerrille, Lon Kbeau, Bill Uarshall, 
Frank Llnd, Maurioe Musser, Lee Webb, 
Bert Stinnett, A. CD. Herman, Harry Mar- 
shall, Bill Riley, Jack McDonald and Dr. 
W.B. Orawwuok, hunted coyotes in the 
Yellowstone national Park and were permitted 
to keep the hides of the animals killed. 
She total oatoh of the above named men 
amounted to eighteen coyotes, no wolves* 

Anderson and Dewing will begin the 
clean-up on wolf dens early in April. About 
a dosen have been located* 



V 



March Monthly Report. 



Upon your suggestion, the following 
named men were selected to compose the 
personnel of the 1921 tourist season ranger 
foroet 



Emmet S» Matthew, 
Hollls N. Matthew, 
John L. Tyler, 
Sam Hurlesa, 
William 0. Troutman, 
Leon D. ilink, 
Bay D. faesdale, 
F. J. Parson, 
Russell Sprlnkel, 
Wendell 3. Keate, 
Eugene V. Robert sou, 
Vernon S. Downs, 
Louis Druskin, 
2, E. Randolph, 



Montana* 

Montana* 

Ltontana* * 

Montana* 

Illinois* 

Montana* 

■•• Dakota* 

Co. Dakota* 

Illinois. 

Utah* 

Montana* 

/>> lata 

Masaaohusette. 
Texas* 



J* Paul Campbell, 
Uordon Cottier, 
?• L. Garter, 
Saw. B. Cogswell, 
0. P. Donohoe, 
Fred C. Finch, 
Bon Le Oornu, 
Cyril C. Moore, 
Paul R. Wylie, 
Marguerite Llndsley, 
F. Hotoson Roe, 
Jack Stratton, 
Philip R, Hough, 
Edward Pyle, 
Alfred H. Clarke, 
E. P. Buokenmyer, 
Robert Wilkenson, 
Robert J. Potter, 
Frank H, Schramm, 
Milton R. Llohtenwallni 
Kanry W. Capen, 
James S. Baker, 
Roger D. Baker, 



Montana* 
Montana* 
Michigan. 
Montana. 
Montana* 
Montana. 
Montana* 
Montana* 
Montana. 
Wyoming* •> 
Washington* 
California* 
Washington. 
Montana* * 
New Jersey* 
Ohie. 

Connecticut* 
V/yoming. 
Wisconsin* 
, Pennsylvania* 
Wisoonsin. 
Wisconsin, 
isoonsin* 



Warren H. Loysjfter, 
John T. Ueedham, 
T. A. Woolsohlager, 
H. s* Panel, 



Hew York* 
Hew York. 
Hew York* 
Iowa* 



2yler will not be able to return. 
Pyle working with MoFarland. 



Pending further information from you* 



Uaroh Monthly Report. 



Tho Southern district of thepark is the 
only district where a deoided dif ferenoe is 
noted in the depth of the snow* Long thaws 
daring the month, left the entire northern 
distriot bare of snow except where deep 
drifts have prevailed all winter* With the 
exception of the slide in the "Devil's Oat" 
the rode to Tower Falls is open to wagon 
travel. The Cooke City Uail Stage Bus was 
able to reach the 12 mile post without 
trouble at the laat of the month. Little 
trouble will be encountered opening the road 
in the interior of the parte. The greatest 
depth of snow in Sylvan Pass as reported 
by Hanger Wisdom la between twenty-five and 
twenty-seven feet and at the alx mile post 
six foot deep* 

The depth of snow at the following 
stations at the end of the month 1st 



Beohler River, 


72 inches. 


Gnake River, 


63 inches. 


Lamar River, (Upper), 


15 Inches. 


Upper Yellowstone, 


36 inches. 


'iSiuwb, 


46 inches. 


Canyon, 


24 inohea. 


Horrls, 


12 inches. 


Lake, 


36 inches. 


Sylvan Pase, 


24 Inches. 


Gardiner, 


Hone. 


Hellroarlng, 


None. 


Buffalo Ranch, 


Trace. 


Plough Creek, 


8 Inches. 


Tower Falls, 


B inches. 


Soda Butte, 


Traces. 


Riverside, 


24 inches. 


Gallatin, 


26 inches. 


i4annoth. 


Traces. 



\X 



Where an increase is reported, it is due to a 
recent storm, or where no decrease is re- 
ported, likewise a reoent storm. This will 
be a small issue as soon as the weather 
turnda warmer and gives the snow a chance 
to settle. The bottom of many of the large 
drifts has fallen out, according to the 
reports . 

The warm weather during the first of 
the month, opened the Yellowstone River 
almost two hundred yards back into the lake. 
Practically all of the ioe along the banks 
between the Lake and the Canyon has gone out* 



L - jf 



6/ March Monthly Report. 



She general oondltion of the game herds 
still remains exceptional. Biey are In high 
flesh and hare returned to the high ridges 
where forage is abundant. 

Boar eigne are numerous* Four \>i-..jaW hear 
and ono grlizlfdhave boon aeon so far this 
year* Huey were reported in the Hellroaring 
dietriot* 

lairty eight elk were killed by wolves 
during the winter, about forty per oent of 
whioh, were calves. Coyotes were responsible 
for the death of about 25 deer and two antel- 
ope* Four eld oows died of natural oauaes, 
and one prbably from gunshot wounds reoelved 
outside of the park after tiie close of the 
hunting season* Ho reports of bull elk die- 
lag during the winter, have been reported* 

Bangers in the Forest Service in the 
Hellroaring district reported eighteen moose 
but so far, have seen no elk outside of the 
park* Obey reported about thirty deer. 

Mountain sheep have gone back into the 
mountains and have not been slnoe for more 
than a month* 

She hay supply at the 31ough Creek 
ranch gave out on the 13th of the month* 
All of the elk immediately left the ranch 
headed for the Specimen Ridge district, ihey 
have not reuraed. 

Buffalo Keeper Lacombe herded the entire 
buffalo herd back on Itount Korrie fciaroh 3rd, 
and have showed no inclination to return to the 
ranch* She calf herd is being fed in the oorral 
but will be allowed to run with the herd dur- 
ing the latter part of April* Biey are being 
fed about 700 pounds of hay daily* 

Out of approximately 400 ton of hay 
out at the buffalo ranch during the summer 
of 1920, Laoombe will hove 200 ton left in 
the stack for use in the future* 

Fishing in the Gardiner and Yellowstone 
Rivers has been very good aooording to the 
reports* Ko permits were Issued to fish in 
the Yellowstone within the park, but local 
oitlsens made many largo oatohes in the 
(iardlner during the month* ttieao parties 
are being watched by rangers* 




u- 



7/ March Monthly Report. 

Park Rangers on loave during the month 
follows 

Warren Hutohins, xi days* 

Sam % Woodring, 4 days, 

». 0. Pound, x day. 

Ford Purdy, 14 4^. 

Clifford Anderson, 2 days* 

Roy !T. Prasler, 24 days. 

B. 3?. S«oyan, 14 ia^B, * 

W.M. Bishop, xa aay , t • 

R. R. Wisdom, 20 days. * 



•• leave to be taken during tf 1 month of 
•April. 

Ranger Bart Bowann was ordered to take 
charge of the Sylvan Pass station during the 
month of April from the 1st to 25th, by 
Ass't. Chief Ranger Joe Douglas to relieve 
Park Rsnger R.R. Wisdom, on leave/ 

Ranger James Russell was ordered to 
the Upper Yellowstone Stateon to relieve 
lot'g. Ass't. Chief Ranger Seoyen, the latter 
being order to the Canyon station. 

Mr. J«jk McDonald, employed by MoParland 
as teamster will relieve Hr a Charles T.llson 
at the Buffal Ranch as Assistant to Laoombe. 
McDonald Is we»l known to this department 
and is considered a very reliable man. 

ICravel during the month was very light. 
Biree passengers were oarrlod on the Cooke 
Stage and seven transients visited headquarters 
during the month. 

Reports from the Riverside Station state 
th3t the mercantile store owned and operated 
at V'esy Yellowstone, Mont., by Mr. A. Stuart, 
burned to the ground Sunday night March 20. 
Sne contents of the building wa3 a total loss. 



Respectfully yours.